and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users,
who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.
2. One whoprograms enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming
rather than just theorizing about programming.
3. Aperson capable of appreciating hack value.
4. A person who is good at programming quickly.
5. An expert at a particular program,
or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in ‘a
Unix hacker.’ (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people
who fit them congregate.)
6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind.
One might be an astronomy hacker, for example.
7. One who
enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing
8. [deprecated] A malicious meddler who
tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence
‘password hacker,’ ‘network hacker.’ The correct term for this
sense is cracker.
One who breaks security on a system. Coined ca. 1985 by hackers
in defense against journalistic misuse of hacker (q.v., sense 8). An
earlier attempt to establish ‘worm’ in this sense around 1981–82
on Usenet was largely a failure.
Use of both these neologisms reflects a strong revulsion against
the theft and vandalism perpetrated by cracking rings. While it is
expected that any real hacker will have done some playful cracking
and knows many of the basic techniques, anyone past larval stage
is expected to have outgrown the desire to do so except for immediate,
benign, practical reasons (for example, if it’s necessary to get
around some security in order to get some work done).
Thus, there is far less overlap between hackerdom and crackerdom
than the mundane reader misled by sensationalistic journalism
might expect. Crackers tend to gather in small, tight-knit,
very secretive groups that have little overlap with the huge, open
poly-culture this lexicon describes; though crackers often like to
describe themselves as hackers, most true hackers consider them a
separate and lower form of life.
It’s clear that the term cracker is absolutely meant to be derogatory. One
shouldn’t take the tone too seriously though, as The Jargon File is done with a
sense of humor, and the above is said with a smile. As we can see from the
above, illegal or perhaps immoral activity is viewed with disdain by the “true
hackers,” whomever they may be. It also makes reference to cracker being a
possible intermediate step to hacker, perhaps something to be overcome.
The term script kiddie has come into vogue in recent years. The term refers to
crackers who use scripts and programs written by others to perform their intrusions.
If one is labeled a “script kiddie,” then he or she is assumed to be incapable
of producing his or her own tools and exploits, and lacks proper
understanding of exactly how the tools he or she uses work. As will be apparent
by the end of this chapter, skill and knowledge (and secondarily, ethics) are the
essential ingredients to achieving status in the minds of hackers. By definition,
a script kiddie has no skills, no knowledge, and no ethics.
A phreak is a hacker variant, or rather, a specific species of hacker. Phreak is
short for phone phreak (freak spelled with a ph, like phone is). Phreaks are
hackers with an interest in telephones and telephone systems. Naturally, there
has been at times a tremendous amount of overlap between traditional hacker
roles and phreaks.
White Hat/Black Hat/Gray Hat
White Hat Hacker:White Hat hackers are good guys who does the hacking for defensing. They probably work an organization for providing security.
Black Hat HackerBlack hat hackers are bad guys(the malicious hackers or crackers). They usually steal the other bank information and steal the money.
They use their skills for illegal purposes.
They are creators of viruses,malware,spyware.
They will destroy your pc.